What Is The Internet of Things?

What Is The Internet of Things? - WebNewsOrbit

The Internet of Things is the concept of a network of data transmission between devices. Inside the IoT, people can communicate with "things", and "things" can communicate with each other.

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How does the Internet of Things work?

How does the Internet of Things work? - WebNewsOrbit

The Internet of Things (IoT) connects devices into a computer network and allows them to collect, analyze, process and transmit data to other objects through software, applications or technical devices

IoT devices function independently, although people can configure them or provide access to data. IoT systems operate in real-time and usually consist of a network of smart devices and a cloud platform to which they are connected via WiFi, Bluetooth or other forms of communication.

What happens when the temperature gets too high, or a burglar appears in the house? The system notifies the user about this or performs further actions such as turning on the air conditioner or calling the police.

First, the devices collect data - for example, about the temperature in an apartment or the user's heart rate, then this data is sent to the cloud. There, the software processes them, and the Internet of Things is inextricably linked with Big Data.

What is the Internet of Things made of?

In addition to Big Data, analytics, connections, devices, and experience are also important for the Internet of Things. For simplicity, this principle is presented as ABCDE: Analytics, BigData, Connection, Devices, Experience.

  • Analytics (analytics) is a key link in the functioning of the IoT, which unites the devices themselves, data from them, and optimizes business processes;
  • BigData - that is, information from devices - is stored in the cloud. They allow you to automate existing processes or build new ones;
  • Connection - These are the channels through which devices receive and transmit information;
  • Devices - devices connected to the system, which for correct operation, depending on the tasks, must have an appropriate frequency of messages;
  • Experience (experience) - working with the existing experience of solving customer problems using the IoT, its analytics and rethinking.

According to Fortune Business Insights, the global IoT market in 2018 was $160 billion and will exceed $1.1 trillion by 2026.

The explosive growth is associated with the widespread adoption of artificial intelligence and machine learning systems. Market growth is also driven by an increase in the number of "smart" devices, smartphones and the growing demand for energy saving. 

Where is the Internet of Things used?

IoT enables companies to automate processes and reduce labour costs; this reduces the volume of waste, improves the quality of services provided, and makes the production process and logistics cheaper.

"IoT can be encountered in almost all areas: from contextual advertising, which tells the user where to dine or refuel, depending on the current geolocation, to food delivery or buying a car."

According to a study by IoT Analytics, in 2020, the highest level of IoT technology penetration was observed in transport, energy, retail, city life management, healthcare and industry.

  • In the power industry, the Internet of Things improves the controllability of substations and transmission lines through remote monitoring.
  • In healthcare, IoT allows you to move to a new level of diagnostics of diseases - "smart" devices monitor the patient's health indicators in the background.
  • In agriculture, smart farms and greenhouses meter fertilizer and water themselves, while smart animal trackers notify farmers in time about the location of animals and their health status by analyzing heart rate, body temperature, and general activity.
  • In transportation, typical IoT solutions include telematics and smart fleet management, where the vehicle connects to a local operating system for monitoring and diagnostics. According to Statista, $740 billion will be invested in developing IoT for cars by 2025.
  • In urban environments, IoT solutions help automate lighting in urban environments while reducing lighting costs by up to 30-50%. Smart meters, which themselves record and transmit information on costs and wear and tear to management companies, relieve city dwellers from the need to verify and send data on energy consumption themselves.
  • In logistics, IoT reduces the cost of transportation and minimizes the impact of the human factor. IoT systems can also monitor the fill rate of trash cans and optimize waste collection costs based on this data.
  • The oil and gas and mining industries actively adopt the Internet of Things. In particular, the use of in-depth analytics on boreholes is helping the oil and gas industry increase production from already depleted fields. And, for example, Severstal, using the Internet of Things, was able to minimize the company's losses due to erroneous forecasts for electricity consumption.
  • In retail, IoT enables brands and sellers to optimize costs and improve customer experience through digital signage, customer interaction tracking, inventory management and smart vending machines. The market is expected to grow from $14.5 billion in 2020 to $35.5 billion by 2025, according to ResearchAndMarkets.

How is IoT useful for humans?

Many people associate the Internet of Things with a "smart" home. Thanks to technologies and devices developed by Google, Yandex, Amazon, Apple, and others, users can make online purchases, adjust the temperature in the room, turn on the lights and music, and give voice commands to virtual assistants.

You no longer need to worry that you forgot to turn off the iron or tap - press a button on your smartphone, and the smart home will fix everything. 

Or you don't have to press because the house is so smart that it will put everything in the order itself, and the owner will be notified of the result. A computer vision surveillance system will recognize everyone who passes your apartment and compare the images with the police base.

Today, a "smart" home can be Amazon's intellectual assistant, "Alexa," or "Google Assistant", which turns on music, searches for information on the Internet, advises films, regulates the lighting and temperature in the house, and turns on the kettle.

Qualcomm also offers a system that will make any home "smarter." It allows you to monitor the situation in the house remotely and inform about the noise's appearance. With its help, you can give instructions to the robot vacuum cleaner and other connected devices and open doors using the face recognition system.

Are there any disadvantages to the Internet of Things?

The main problem with which the development of IoT is associated is security. Cybercriminals are constantly trying to hack remote monitoring devices for patients, databases with information about human health, intelligent car control systems, carry out phishing attacks, upload viruses to jailbroken devices, and even commit sabotage at factories. Therefore, participants in the IoT market need to learn how to protect their systems.

Another complication of the Internet of Things is the possible incompatibility of software from different devices from different manufacturers combined into a single system. This situation can arise when developers release a software update for their device and do not validate its compatibility with older software versions of other related devices. To troubleshoot problems, you will have to contact other development companies and ask them to make changes to their software for the correct operation of the entire IoT system.

Connecting more and more devices to the Internet will inevitably lead to job losses. For example, IoT systems will replace some specialists in the maintenance, repair, and installation of equipment. In addition, today, the legal aspects of implementing the Internet of Things are rather vague.

IoT implementation challenges

The two problems in the implementation of the Internet of Things into technological and personnel:
  1. technological problems are related to the fact that existing systems of maintenance, repair supplies, and resource planning in enterprises do not provide for the introduction of new tools for collecting data;
  2. staffing problems are associated with personnel when technicians cannot change from manual information collection.
Prediction is the latest stage in the industrial Internet of Things evolution. It involves not just collecting data from pieces of equipment but a local system with a distributed network. Information from different sources enters one storage, where it is processed and sent to the operating personnel of the device.

The future of the Internet of things

According to IDC forecasts, there will be 55.7 billion connected devices in the world by 2025. Cybercriminals will continue to attack them because the IoT system is fast enough to distribute malware. 

Consumers, businesses, and entire cities will increasingly use smart technology to save time and money. For example, refrigerators will warn of imminent food spoilage, traffic lights with built-in video sensors will regulate traffic depending on traffic.

What will smart homes be like in ten years?

However, the key problem in IoT implementation is the lack of uniform standards. Therefore, existing solutions are difficult to integrate, and new ones appear slower than they could.

Another nuance is that "things" on the Internet of Things should be autonomous, that is, to receive energy from the environment, without human participation.

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